What does “flipped” mean?

The flipped approach means active and self-directed learning, to “flip” the roles (Trainer ⇒ Facilitator, Learner ⇒ Self-determining adult) with self-responsibility for their learning (heutagogical approach).

Adult learners should be self-determined.

Heutagogy means self-determined learning. It is important that learners acquire both competencies and capabilities. Competency can be understood as proven ability in acquiring knowledge and skills (and attitudes), while capability is characterized by learner confidence in his or her competency.

The preconditions of learners to a heutagogical approach to learn are

  • self-efficacy, in knowing how to learn and continuously reflect on the learning process;
  • communication and teamwork skills, working well with others and being openly communicative;
  • creativity, particularly in applying competencies to new and unfamiliar situations and by being adaptable and flexible in approach;
  • positive values



Source: Blaschke, L.M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1), 56-71. Retrieved from: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2113


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